Essay on the spanish armada

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One ship was severely damaged while the others were barely harmed. The English attacked again on August 8 before the Spanish ship could regroup. The battle went on for 8 hours straight, and three Spanish ships were sunk while the others were badly battered. Recognizing the power of the English fleet, the Spaniards headed back to Spain.

Only about 60 ships reached Spain, most of them too damaged to be repaired. The English lost thousands of men due to disease and casualties in battle. The outcome of the battle made Spain less powerful then before. It marked the turning point between the era of Spanish world domination, and the risk of Britain to the position of international power Goldman 1. The once powerful Spain was now recognized as being defeated.

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England remained victorious and powerful, gaining the wealth that they once dreamed of Goldman 1. Once the army had landed in Kent they would march up to London and make Elizabeth beg for mercy. Alessandro was a very good general who had fought at Lepanto, and his army was arguably the best in Europe. As well as containing a good number of men, everyone there was well paid, well provisioned, well equipped and excellently disciplined. That army was there to fight the Protestant Dutch, but was going to be used against England.

He also had monks and siege engineers with him to convert the English and break down the walls of any city that resisted.

Essay on the Spanish Armada - What Do You Think of It? - HeavenGames Forums

Longbowmen had beat French knights throughout the Hundred Years War — but this time the enemy had a secret weapon the knights had lacked — discipline. But Medina did not do everything correctly. Parma was doubtful about the situation, though. He did not control a large dock on that coast and the shallow sandy beaches were dangerous to large warships. A good Dutch port was needed to maintain some system of communication. Spanish astrologers had also warned that disaster would strike in the year of Unfortunately, the wind was not in its favour and the food grew mouldy, so the great fleet had to turn back.

The Armada returned to Corunna in northern Spain for repairs and fresh supplies. The English fleet sent to stop the Armada found nothing so it had to anchor in Plymouth.

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The Armada set sail again on 21st July, and after four days Medina Sidonia wrote to Parma in the Netherlands to assemble his forces. He also told him to reply when he was ready. The Armada entered English waters. On 19th July the English saw the Armada in its full might for the first time.

News and rumour spread rapidly through England about the Armada. Protestant ministers preached that the Spanish would use terrible tortures to convert the English to Catholicism and told them to resist. The English were divided into four squadrons, each commanded by Drake in his new tonne ship Revenge, Frobisher in his old 1, tonne Triumph, Howard in the Ark Royal and John Hawkins.

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Fire beacons were immediately lit across Kent. Howard of Effingham and the other store ships were in the centre of the three squadrons. The Spanish were in a crescent formation, whose flanks could close in like a powerful jaw. Medina Sidonia was in the centre with a group of Portuguese galleons and the crescent protected the vulnerable store ships in the centre, which made up a separate squadron. To the right you can see the Battle of Plymouth. The English inflicted a few casualties, but could not break the crescent formation.

GCSE History: Why did the Spanish Armada fail?

The first early battles began. The only losses to the Armada so far had been of human incompetence — the San Salvador blew up suddenly and was towed away as a prize by Hawkins, and the Rosario lost its main mast in a collision with another Armada ship and was captured by Drake. The English ships sailed one behind the other now — this new tactic gave every ship the chance to fire once in a while.

Why the Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588.

After Plymouth, the Armada retained its powerful crescent formation. Two more battles followed. On 4th August there was a battle off the Isle of Wight. The wind dropped and so the ships had to be towed by rowing boats. However, when it freshened up again the English easily outran the Spanish. It was a possibility to anchor off the Isle of Wight to await replies from Parma, but driven on by the wind and the English, the Armada captains decided it was too risky, abandoned the plan and sailed towards Plymouth, their crescent formation still standing.

The English stopped the pursuit and to take on fresh food and gunpowder. Unhindered, the Armada sailed into Calais on 6th August France remained neutral to both countries throughout the war.

The Spanish Armada

Bad news followed — Parma had been unable to capture a Dutch port. Hellburners Greek fire had been invented centuries ago, and the Byzantine Empire made extensive use of them until its fall. However, western European fire ships did not spew Greek fire — in fact they had a different definition. They were expendable old ships which were set alight and drifted to anchored ships.

The fire ships would still get destroyed, but they could damage or destroy ships much more valuable and expensive. They were steered by a voluntary crew, who would escape in longboats once the fire ships were torching other ships — for fire was the single most dangerous thing a wooden ship was vulnerable to. Fire-pots were deadly weapons which could be thrown by hand onto the decks of enemy ships.

Unlike cannon, which only destroyed masts, sails and timbers, they could destroy the whole ship. Some fire-pots were even unquenchable by water.

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There is a fire-pot to the right. The Spanish received a reply from Parma — he had not finished putting his troops into the barges. Howard called a Council of War, and it was decided that the best plan was to attack the Armada with fire ships Howard was chosen because of his rank, not ability. He could make quarrelsome captains obey him. The patrol boats were too frightened to intercept large warships, so the crescent formation was finally broken.

Although no Armada ships were lost in this scuffle, it was now disorganized and in confusion. The Battle of Gravelines Soon after the fire ship attack, the English had seized their advantage disorganized Spanish ships to attack. A violent six-day battle had begun, near the French port of Gravelines.

Contacts with Parma were lost. The ships soon came so close that opposite crews were able to fire with their muskets. The Spanish madly tried to board the English ships, where their disciplined soldiers could wreck havoc, but the English held them off, pouring gunpowder into their ships until their stocks were all gone.

Although they were soon dying by the hundreds, the Spanish refused to give up. The seas ran red with blood. However, the Spanish were definitely losing, as Medina had already lost eight galleons and countless smaller merchant ships.